behaviour 231. Poyner 194 carried out a large evaluation of 122 crime prevention projects. Hebelieved that crime was learned. Finally, researchers have also noted that even if mandatory minima can have a deterrent effect on some individuals, there is a high likelihood of displacement to alternative types of weapons that are not covered by mandatory sentencing 224. By this strategy neighbors are supposed to be readily aw e and watchful of what happens in the neighborhood in order to deter criminals from committing crimes. However, commentators have also note that excessive use of target hardening tactics can create a "fortress mentality" whereby residents withdraw behind physical barriers and the self-policing capacity of the built environment is damaged, effectively working against SBD strategies that rely on surveillance, territoriality and image. Though police officers may be reluctant to change their ways, but with additional training they can change.
Crime Reduction and Prevention
Traffic calming on estates or key roads where road safety is an issue. Erecting or strengthening physical barriers As a real and symbolic barrier to crime, protective screens around drivers on buses have been shown to significantly reduce assaults on drivers 185. It is suggested that recreational activities may be beneficial as they can successfully be used as a 'hook' upon which to layer a developmental approach which combines social support, positive role models and other protective factors. A number of US cities removed accessible cash with the introduction of exact fares and prohibited bus drivers from giving change. Tougher sentences and mandatory minima are therefore unlikely to produce deterrent effects unless accompanied by a perception that the risk of detection is high. Other studies 232 have shown activities with low structure or little adult supervision to be a predictor of deviant behaviour. Stop and Search Research with knife carriers suggests that the risk of being the subject of a police 'stop and search' was reported to be a strong factor in the decision not to carry a weapon among some young people, while other interviewees reported the. Furthermore, the study found evidence of a significant reduction in burglary in the three months that immediately preceded implementation as a consequence of pre-implementation publicity 199 A number of studies 200 note that news of a crime prevention initiative was found (based on interviews with. Crime is any action or offence that defies a state or country and is punishable by law. In the 12 months after the launch 74 burglaries were reported (a 40 drop). The lack of statistically robust comparison areas also means these results should be interpreted with caution.